Doping is defined as the occurrence of one or more of the following Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs) which are as follows:
1. Presence of a prohibited substance in an Athlete’s sample
2. Use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or method
3. Refusal to submit to sample collection after being notified
4. Failure to file athlete whereabouts information & missed tests
5. Tampering with any part of the doping control process
6. Possession of a prohibited substance or method
7. Trafficking a prohibited substance or method
8. Administering or attempting to administer a prohibited substance or method to an Athlete
9. Complicity in an ADRV
10. Prohibited association with sanctioned Athlete Support Personnel
11. Discourage or Retaliate other Persons from reporting relevant Anti-Doping information to the authorities.
The first four Anti-Doping Rule Violations apply only to athletes since they refer to the obligation not to take banned substances or use banned methods and the obligation to submit to testing.
The remaining seven Anti-Doping Rule Violations apply to both the athlete and the Athlete Support Personnel including coaches, medical professionals, or anyone else working with the athlete or involved in anti-doping activities. ADO and National Olympic Committee administrators, officials and sample collection staff may also be liable for their conduct under the World Anti-Doping Code.